Biophysical and Physiological Responses promoting Freeze Tolerance in Vertebrates

JP Costanzo, RE, Lee Jr.


Freeze tolerance, an overwintering adaptation of at least 10 species of ectothermic vertebrates, is promoted by integrated biophysical and physiological responses to ice forming within tissues. Application of physiological principles of natural freeze tolerance has accelerated the development of protocols for cryopreserving mammalian organs.